White Papers and eBooks
Explore thought leadership surrounding embedded computing technologies, and gain in-depth knowledge about the industry and open standards trends.
AdvancedTCA® (or ATCA®) technology has proven itself to be one of the most successful open, bladed architectures for high-performance, ultra-reliable network computing. The PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturer Group (PICMG®) ratified the original ATCA open standard specification 15 years ago, has enhanced it over the years, and continues be an active organization of vendors and users. ATCA has defined a system architecture that supports systems which are compact, light and power efficient—which has become an ideal choice for military, aerospace and security systems.
Traditional methods of digital signal processing in military and aerospace applications have used specialized FPGAs, multiprocessor VME or OpenVPX solutions. Advances in microprocessor technology and accompanying software could mean that AdvancedTCA® (ATCA®) has the potential to replace some of those elements in complex signal processing applications.
Developing a SIL4 fault-tolerant safety platform and having it certified by an accredited agency requires a significant effort and investment. There are many ‘what if...?’ questions to be addressed at every stage of development, testing and certification. This paper introduces the relevant functional safety standards and some of the areas for consideration including formal failure analysis, voting, the safety communication layer, common mode failures, safety analysis, variations in the operating environment, and certification.
An SEU or single event upset is a change in state of a storage element inside a device or system. It’s an example of the kind of fault in a system that may go unnoticed for many years as the system continues to operate as expected. This paper outlines how SEUs and other latent faults, which can affect functional safety systems, can be mitigated through a system-level approach. This can improve the projected dangerous failure rate of a functional safety system by an order of magnitude over the life of a system without requiring additional periodic or proof testing requirements upon the user.
The market for embedded computing technologies in rail applications is following a similar trend as has been seen in other embedded market spaces. A layer of the technology value chain becomes ‘table stakes’— delivering limited competitive advantage to a point that it makes sense for application providers to reallocate R&D resources to differentiating elements of the end product and buy the base technology from companies who are dedicated to that technology. We are witnessing this transition in the rail market for embedded computers that are certified to safety integrity level four (SIL4), the highest level. These embedded computers offer a certified, commercial offthe-shelf (COTS) generic fail-safe platform allowing rail application developers to focus their R&D resources on differentiating applications.
A programmable electronic system can be defined as functionally safe if it operates correctly and predictably, so that even in the event of failures it remains safe for persons and the environment. Such a system can be defined as reliable if it performs its function without failure for a specified period of time. These attributes can lead to conflicting requirements and very different designs.
For example, to achieve high levels of functional safety, one method is to compare two or more channels as a diagnostic so that if a difference is detected, the system enters a “fail-safe” state and stops delivering its prescribed service.
There are significant changes taking place in radio access networks and at the edge of telecom networks. With so many ways to implement 5G, multi-access edge computing (MEC) and the various flavors of virtualization, there are numerous different deployment models.
This white paper introduces the virtual RAN, cloud RAN and MEC with an insight into the new applications they can enable, with a focus on how carriers can potentially save money on infrastructure development and make money from new services.
The evolution of networks across generations of evolving protocols has led to a complex mixture of deployed wireless systems. Development towards 5G and the increasing use of heterogeneous networks (HetNets) to improve coverage with fill-in solutions has created an environment of growing complexity, whose management and resource allocation has become a key issue for network operators.
This paper presents the ideas and initiatives driving self-organizing networks (SONs), a key enabler for effective 5G deployment. The authors look closely at the challenge of a data center-based eNodeB pool in a Cloud RAN (C-RAN) context and present a possible solution based on open standard technologies.
The Smart EC MaxCore™ platform offers a versatile and dense architecture to achieve maximum compute and media processing density. Through its use of Smart EC technology microserver cards, Smart EC media processing PCI Express cards and third party PCI Express cards, it offers maximum flexibility, maximum density per rack unit (RU), and unmatched innovation in design for both datacenter and carrier grade applications.
This white paper will spell out the benefits of the MaxCore platform and explain how it is explicitly designed to meet the challenges of the emerging NFV/SDN era. The paper will examine how the MaxCore chassis is superior to others in its power, versatility, flexibility and efficiency.
Deep packet inspection (DPI) is a technique with many different use cases, delivering information about packet flows and content as well as allowing network operators and service providers to ensure quality of service at an application level.